Low carb, low glycemic index, or something else entirely
"Why Low Carb?"

OmniCarb (Sacks et al., 2014)

Study design & results in a nutshell:

5 weeks, low(ish) vs. high carb (40 vs. 58%) with the calorie difference split between protein (23 vs. 16%) and fat (37 vs. 27%). In other words, the low(ish) carb diet was higher in protein and fat. And there was 2 versions of each diet -- a high and low glycemic index. Lots of crossing over; all in all, weak intervention but decent study design & execution.

Aaaand nothingsauce nothingburger. 

Goal was change in insulin sensitivity, not weight loss. Nothing happened.

Important points:

1. Non-industrial food Hunger-Free Diet(s). 

2) The participants were relatively healthy at baseline. Anyone on meds was excluded. Average BMI 32. Mostly educated non-smokers. This population is expected to respond reasonably well to any diet (wrt body weight... see next point). 

3) “Calorie intake was adjusted to maintain initial body weight.”

^^^this really knocks the wind out of low carb. One of the big benefits of cutting industrial food is spontaneous appetite suppression –- two points here: 1) this effect is most prominent in obese IR; and 2) it is more relevant to weight loss (not insulin sensitivity). By not targeting insulin resistant and/or type 2 diabetics, and feeding specifically to prevent weight loss, I ask you this: Why Low Carb?

4) the biggest difference between the two diets was carbs (45% higher in low[ish] fat group), but the biggest difference from baseline, was protein in the LC group (53% increase). In other words, the Low Carb group had their carbs decreased from 50 to 40% of calories. 

5) Body composition wasn’t assessed; so even if LCHP induced nutrient partitioning and improved body comp, we wouldn’t know it.

6) see point 1 again.

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calories proper

calories proper