The ideas which lead up to the modern practice of runic divination actually got their start in a book called Adalruna Rediviva written in 1605. It was written by a Rosicrucian hermeticist looking to create a more Germanic form of Kabbalah.
This, in turn, inspired Guido Von List to create the Armanen Runes in 1908. List claimed that these 18 runes represented Óðinn's 18 spells from the Hávamál, and were revealed to him in a series of divine visions.
In 1982, inspired by the Armanen Runes and some ensuing efforts to expound upon them, Ralph Blum used his knowledge of the Chinese 'I Ching' to create his own type of runic divination. Blum was the first to use rune tiles like those pictured above, and invented the practice of including a blank tile with every set.