As if we needed another study about breakfast. Or 4.
Exhibit A. Participants were given ~30 grams of whey, casein, or carbs 30 minutes before bed (Kinsey et al., 2014). [side note: the closer it is to bedtime, the less food is needed to mess up your rhythms. Worded another way, if you're gonna have a big dinner, the earlier the better]. The following morning, you guessed it, they weren't hungry for breakfast. And they had higher insulin levels. FFS. Worded another way, light early dinner -> lower insulin and more hungry for breakfast, in the morning.

Dopamine and breakfast.

Light and food in the morning.

Metabolism is gimped at night.

Exhibit B1. Expecting mothers: "Across the whole cohort, night-time, but not day-time, carbohydrate intake was positively associated with glucose concentrations after the glucose load and inversely associated with early phase insulin secretion (P < 0.05)" (Chandler-Laney et al., 2016).

Evening is not the best time to carb... but it's not just carbs... and it affects infants, too.

Exhibit B2. Expecting mothers: predominantly night-time feeders had higher fasting blood glucose than predominantly day-time feeders (Loy et al., 2016).

Sunlight, Meal Timing, and Circadian Rhythms.

Exhibit C. It works in babies, too (Cheng et al., 2016). "The feeding of infants predominantly during nighttime hours was associated with adiposity gain and risk of overweight in early childhood."

Whoa - if this is true, we're talking some serious epigenetics.

The intervention studies have been done. The clearest were those of Jacobs and Hirsh, imo (KISS principle): if allowed one meal per day, those given only breakfast ate less and lost weight. When calories were controlled, the breakfast-only group STILL lost more weight than the dinner-only group. This is circadian biology. We're better fat burners and naturally more ketogenic with earlier feeding patterns (scroll down to Part 3 of this blog post for the studies on this).

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calories proper