Maximize sunlight exposure, minimize artificial light (or at least get some hot blue blockers). Get at least some physical activity. Those are the basics. Moving on...
Tl;dr: Beef heart, calf liver, and maybe some supps :)
Coenzyme Q10 isn't approved for the treatment of anything, but hear me out.
We have about a gram of CoQ10 in our entire body, concentrated in the mitochondria of highly oxidative tissues (Saini, 2011). It is found at around 60-110 ug/g in heart (eg, Ercan and El, 2011 & Aberg et al., 1992).
To be honest, I'm not a fan beef liver. OK it's gross. Calf liver is a little better & chicken liver just tastes like chicken. Beef heart is nothing like that. It's [not surprisingly*] actually kinda similar to regular steak (slight differences in texture and flavor, but not in a bad way). *Not surprisingly - because just like steak, it's a muscle (albeit cardiac muscle, not skeletal).
Here's my pitch: there's a turnover rate for everything in our bodies. Things are degraded and replaced via endogenous synthesis and/or diet. CoQ10 declines as we age. Supps contain 30 - >200 mg daily, which I think is way too high considering there's only about 1000 mg, total, in our body. A couple grams of beef heart would provide less than half a milligram and it's really not as bad as beef liver! I propose doing this occasionally, with increased frequency as we age.
There aren't any homerun CoQ10 supp studies, but many decent epi studies on functional healthspan, aging, and CoQ10 levels (which is another reason why I don't think hyperdosing CoQ10 supps is necessary and even am pushing for much lower levels of intake via beef heart.) That said, Labdoor ranked Bulk Supps CoQ10 highest in quality, and at the level of intake we're talking about, it's very inexpensive.
Unlike CoQ10, there's actually a decent amount of evidence that alpha-lipoic acid (aLA) is actually good for your brain and nerves (which is why I won't force you to eat calf liver haha) (although that would be preferred, there is actual evidence of efficacy for some of the supps...).
In agreement with the turnover theory mentioned above and assuming you're not taking it for a specific medical condition, I think many of the supps are way overdosed. Older supps contained 300-600 mg of the poorly bioavailable R/S-aLA. Newer products contain <100 mg of a potassium and/or sodium salt of R-aLA which has superior bioavailability... but even 100 mg seems high to me. Every other day?
P.S. most products include D-biotin because it physically looks like aLA, and an early rodent study showed aLA reduced the activity of some biotin-dependent enzymes. I don't think this would be an issue unless, maybe, you're biotin deficient to begin with. And unless you're drinking raw egg whites regularly, biotin deficiency is rare. Turnover is low and we get plenty via diet.
More speculative steps: Lion's Mane aka Yamabushitake aka Hericium Erinaceus.
I've always been interested in 'shrooms for their anti-cancer properties, so much so that "'shrooms-every-day" has become part of my long-term anti-cancer plan. I've never been into 'shroom supps, but a reader directed me to Real Mushrooms a few weeks ago and Lion's Mane looks GREAT for brain health. It's edible but expensive $/lb (eg, here). I bought some at the grocery store; it doesn't taste like anything but was a great sponge-like vessel for the delivery of vinegars :)
Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) seems similar to BDNF (brain fertilizer): this is how you make new memories, learn things, and maintain neural health. There are a ton of studies showing Lion's Mane lights up NGF in a variety of models.
"The reported health-promoting properties of the mushroom fruit bodies, mycelia, and bioactive pure compounds include antibiotic, anticarcinogenic, antidiabetic, antifatigue, antihypertensive, antihyperlipodemic, antisenescence, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and neuroprotective properties and improvement of anxiety, cognitive function, and depression. The described anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and immunostimulating properties in cells, animals, and humans seem to be responsible for the multiple health-promoting properties" (Friedman, 2015).
That company (Real Mushrooms) has a really good reputation and is also offering 10% off (see below for link).
Others that deserve repeating:
Seafood, shellfish, and DHA are givens. Iodine deficiency causes bona fide mental retardation so some dulse every now and then might be prudent. Alcohol is a neurotoxin, so figure out what "moderation" is to you and subtract one. Repeat after a few weeks haha :)
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