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The post "Swallowed Exceptions: The Silent Killer of Java Applications" by Alex Zhitnitsky on Feb 6th 2018 is a useful overview of application exception handling - it goes beyond Java, and is applicable to most languages.
There is a supporting webinar link in the post (full disclosure: which I have not watched)
Key Points (for me):
- log data is often unstructured
- people process logs with grep and other tools
- an analysis of github projects showed common patterns for how people handle exceptions
- the above analysis is also worth reading
- people don't log all the things that aid debugging e.g. variables
- people 'swallow' or 'hide' execeptions rather than handling them or logging them
It's worth looking at the logging in your apps and getting familiar with the tools you use inhouse e.g. do you use splunk? logstash?
This is often an environment specific tool set so you don't have to learn them all.