If you got something wrong and don't know why, or need some further explanation of anything, please ask in a reply to this post.
Since there has been a request for text analysis, I thought I would share one I did yesterday in reply to a question. It is useful I think because it is an example of one of the things we have been working on in the current worksheet - the way verb phrases (logical sentences turned around) can work as adjectives.
This is crucially important because so much of Japanese works this way.
This is somewhat above the level of the current stage of our course. So please don't worry if you're not there yet.
The question was regarding my video lesson on the fact that の is sometimes used as が in adjectival clauses (white mini-trains that exist within the overall train).
The point of that video was to show that this isn't some strange, random rule but makes logical sense.
Here's the question:
If it is alright, I would like to ask a question. Is the の particle in 「の並ぶ商店街」 the same の in this lesson or is it different? 「駅の東側にはカフェ やレストランやフラワー ショップの並ぶ商店街や公園があっ た。」
Before answering, I want to note that the questioner, Maru Mofu-san (kawaii name!), refers to
the の particle in 「の並ぶ商店街」
This indicates a wrong way of thinking about it. It's a small matter but important. A noun-marking particle like の、が、を、に、etc. always belongs to the noun it marks, and we should think of it that way.
In texts for very young Japanese children written in all-hiragana with spaces, the particles are usually written along with the word they mark and the space then separates this "conjoined word" from the next word.
This isn't a rule, since spaced text is unconventional anyway, but it is the way we should think of it because it will help us understand the structure correctly.*
Here is my answer. I wrote it assuming the questioner would understand the Japanese but for this post I have inserted hiragana and literal translation:
「駅の東側にはカフェ やレストランやフラワー ショップの並ぶ商店街や公園があっ た。
Yes, this is the same の particle. It could of course be が, and the action of "lining-up" (a very feeble translation of 並ぶ but there isn't really good English equivalent that I know of) is "possessed" by the shops and restaurants.
So we can note that the structure here is:
To the east side of the station
Saying much the same thing in English, we might have used an introductory (topic-setting) phrase like "if we turn to the east side of the station" - or we might not, since は is "lighter" than that.
Logical sentence core:
the shopping district and park(s) (among other things - や is non-exclusive "and") existed
The shopping district and parks are the が-marked A of this A does B sentence, and the B (what they do) is あった, existed.
The rest is a modifier to A. But it consists, as Japanese modifiers often do, of a complete logical sentence in itself.
Modifier to core A:
カフェ やレストランやフラワー ショップの並ぶ
cafes and restaurants and flower-shops etc. (etc. because of や) line up (ならぶ)
Here the A is the restaurants, cafes and shops and the B is what they do (並ぶ). If this were a stand-alone sentence A would be marked by が. But because it is working as an adjectival clause A can be (but isn't necessarily) marked by の (see video if this isn't clear).
That was my answer, and the questioner understood. But for people new to this kind of structure (or to such a complex example of it) we can note that:
"restaurants etc. line up", which could easily be a sentence in itself is here presented as an adjectival quality of the "shopping center and parks" which are doing the sentence's engine-job of "existing".
In other words we have a shopping center etc described as being one where restaurants etc line up. In Japanese we can say "a big shopping center", "a bustling shopping center" or "a restaurants-and-cafes-line-up shopping center". It all works the same way.
This is precisely because of what I explained in Lesson 6, that any verb (and with it any phrase that belongs to the verb) can be used as an adjective.
Clearly this is not how we would put it in English. But it is exactly how large numbers of Japanese sentences work.
For linguistics wonks I would add that older Indo-European languages (Latin, Greek, Sanskrit etc. and some modern ones like German) these noun-particle functions have a near-exact equivalent in the case system, which performs Japanese particle-functions by changing the form of the noun in a variety of complex and sometimes irregular ways.
Japanese particles are the case system done right - we simply pop a particle on the end and presto! the word is in the right case.
Luckily we don't have to learn any of this, but it should remind us that noun-marking particles really do belong to the nouns they follow, just as much as the Indo-European noun-inflections do.