Dopamine regulates systemic glucose metabolism in humans
In Four. EPIC. Experiments (ter Horst et al., 2018)

Tl;dr: sunlight & breakfast in the morning.

Dopamine receptors are downregulated in obese patients and are restored in long-term weight loss patients after bariatric surgery. It's better to get your dopamine hit via sunlight than sugar duh.

This is some amazing science.

Experiment 1. 50-year old dude with severe OCD gets diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and is only able to get his glucose under control with metformin and 226 IU insulin. At 53, his OCD is treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS). His insulin requirements declined to 180 IU. He didn't lose weight but went off quetiapine, so maybe coincidence because: 1. quetiapine is diabetogenic; and 2. DBS induces dopamine release.

Two-step hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp when DBS is turned off and turned on. BOOM! When it's on, lower fasting insulin, and better insulin-induced suppression of liver glucose output, free fatty acids, & muscle glucose disposal! DBS improved insulin sensitivity in liver, adipose, and skeletal muscle.

Experiment 2. Aaaand they followed up with 14 more patients with OCD being treated with DBS. It worked. Again. Cycloset, anyone? Along those lines, I suspect in the near future Cycloset (bromocriptine) may be the #2 next to metformin in the management of blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetes.

Side note: DBS also decreased anxiety, depression, obsessions, and compulsions. Which is why they do it in the first place.

Experiment 3. 10 healthy men, dopamine-depletion via pharmacological inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase (sunlight does the opposite).

Dopamine depletion effectively turned these healthy men into diabetics. Significantly reduced insulin-induced glucose clearance. In healthy men.

Experiment 4. They took mice and genetically gave them a light-activated enzyme specifically in dopamine receptor-expressing neurons. Lights on? BOOM! Lower glucose despite lower insulin. That's some serious insulin sensitization!

In sum, lights on! AM sunlight & breakfast. And go for a walk. And #eTRF.

That's all for now!

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calories proper