I've been known to say intermittent fasting is #weaksauce (especially when compared to continuous energy restriction) because most of the human studies show little or no effect and people frequently report being hungry (yes, even if LCHF). Human studies, not "n=1's."
Well, now we know why. Time-restricted feeding (TRF) only really works when the feeding window is early (eTRF), as demonstrated by the recent Sutton study which showed, miraculously, great benefits achieved sans weight loss. Calories were strictly controlled in that study to prevent weight loss. AND when the participants were on eTRF, they actually reported less hunger in the evening.
We know from the studies by Jacobs and Hirsh that under ad lib AND isocaloric conditions, people lose more weight eating all their food for breakfast than those eating all their food for dinner.
That's cuz metabolism is gimped at night. Lower metabolic rate and greater propensity to store fat.
Melatonin sensitizes the system, preparing it to optimally partition nutrients in the morning.
"eTRF combines daily fasting and the alignment of meals with normal circadian and metabolic rhythms... causing the body to shift to alternative metabolic phases that rely less on glucose and more on ketone sources, resulting in pleiotropic benefits often sustained long after the diet regimen has ceased." !!!
But we also know from this blog post that we're naturally more ketogenic on eTRF. For example, evening meals suppress fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis for far longer than morning meals.
"Circadian rhythms and meal timing are inextricably linked... timing the major calorie consumption to coincide with the time that the endocrine system is most responsive may maximize the ability of the body to process the food." #eTRF FTW. TRY IT! According to the Sutton study, it only took about 12 days for the people to adapt.
That's all for now!
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