Regular circadian effects vs. effects of circadian misalignment.
Endogenous circadian system and circadian misalignment impact glucose tolerance via separate mechanisms in humans (Morris et al., 2015)

"Glucose tolerance is lower in the evening and at night than in the morning."

THE FIRST FRIGGIN' LINE! Come on fam, please stop arguing against this fact. A basic tenet of circadian biology is our preparedness for food intake in the morning. "Skipping breakfast" is not hormetic. It's CICO and not in a good way. Metabolism is gimped at night, so you end up having to eat less so you're double-restricted (no breakfast and less food at night).

The point of this study was two-fold, in my estimation: 1) determine the normal circadian influences on glucose tolerance; and 2) influence of circadian misalignment.

When comparing the glycemic response to identical meals ingested after an identical period of fasting, either at 8 AM (subjective morning or "breakfast") or 8 PM (subjective evening or "dinner"): postprandial glucose was 17% higher (ie, lower glucose tolerance) in the biological evening (8:00 PM) than morning (8:00 AM; ie, a circadian phase effect).


Then they gave 'em a pretty rough 12-hour switcharoo in the light-dark cycle. Circadian misalignment per se further increased postprandial glucose by 6%.

Even after 3 days of circadian misalignment, sleep quality and melatonin were reduced and showing no signs of improvement :(

Thus, in healthy humans, there is a strong time-of-day variation in glucose tolerance, with a peak in the morning and a trough in the evening and at night. If you're gonna carb, do so early. Same goes for calories: breakfast like a king and all that jazz. Early Time-Restricted Feeding is more about the timing of the feeding window than the actual duration

Differential effects of the circadian system and circadian misalignment on insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in humans (Qian et al., 2018)

"Glucose tolerance is lower at night and higher in the morning." AGAIN

This study set out to determine what controls the diurnal fluctuation in glucose tolerance and found that it's a combination of insulin resistance and reduced beta-cell function. They came to the conclusion: our results support the findings that avoiding large meals in the evening may prevent postprandial hyperglycemia and thus reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in the long run. PRETTY MUCH

That's all for now!

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