At 7 days, this study was longer than some but shorter than others. Breakfast was provided by the researchers. Participants were on their own for lunch and dinner. Ad lib, although 7 days isn't really long enough to influence body weight and this wasn't even a goal of the researchers. Their goals were hunger, satiety, fullness, and sleep quality.
RANDOMIZED CROSSOVER. BOOM.
Small sample size (n = 13), although based on previous findings & expected effect sizes, they needed 12 participants for an 80% chance of detecting a statistically significant difference if one truly existed. Bigger sample sizes are usually better, but when those resources can be better spent elsewhere, researchers use these power calculations to determine the fewest participants required...
On day 7, they assessed some brain stuff before lunch and then sent them home with party boxes loaded with an assortment of pre-weighed foods & snacks. The participants were instructed to eat as much of whatever they wanted, ad lib, and return the boxes the following day.
The brain stuff:
Similar to #eTRF, adherence was excellent. Seems like people just find it much easier to do a high protein breakfast and/or front-load calories. High protein breakfast group also said they were less hungry, reduced desire to eat, and in line with these, lower ghrelin.
The study was too short to detect changes in body weight or total food intake, although short-term decreases in feelings of hunger usually precede long-term fat loss.
What stunk for the breakfast skippers in this study, is they were eating just as much but feeling less satiated and more hungry than the high protein breakfasters.
Total kcal intake wasn't changed, although the breakfast skippers ate significantly more snack foods in the evening. I'd say a high protein breakfast is gonna be much healthier in the long run than snacking later in the day.
Perceived sleep quality and sleep onset improved in high protein breakfasters relative to breakfast skippers.
Besides nutrient anti-partitioning (more fat mass, less muscle), poorer food choices, and weight gain, crappy sleep also leads to public safety concerns, jeopardized work productivity, rising healthcare needs, increased risk for car crashes and morbidity... if a high protein breakfast can put even a small dent in this, I'd say it's worth it. Would you?
That's all for now!
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