The energy expenditure and food intake of individual men.
So, this study has been making the rounds: Skipping Breakfast Before Exercise Creates a More Negative 24-hour Energy Balance: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Healthy Physically Active Young Men (Edinburgh et al., 2019)
I didn't want to comment on it because critics could easily say I was just biased (many studies support breakfast from a variety of angles therefore so do I).
Does skipping breakfast allow your to maintain an energy deficit and lose excess body fat? If so, GO FOR IT. Skipping breakfast may not be optimal long-term wrt health & general well-being, but it's better than carrying around excess body fat for decades.
I don't buy intermittent fasting does much beyond that -- with the exception of a few studies on eTRF (early Time-Restricted Feeding) which showed favorable effects on weight loss, insulin sensitivity, and fasting blood glucose. Not entirely sure why this happens with skipping dinner and not skipping breakfast but it is what it is. Probably has something to do with, ya know, circadian rhythms.
Regulation of energy balance -
1) I think the Edhold 1955 study on the short- vs. long-term regulation of appetite is great. Both what they did and their discussion.
Tl;dr: they meticulously measured energy expenditure & food intake and found wildly non-associated relationships. On some days, when some people expended a lot of energy, they compensated for it within 2-7 days. Read that again.
If they massively under-ate, they didn't always make up for it the next day. Sometimes they did. Sometimes it took a week to return to energy balance. This was completely ad lib -- these weren't weight-conscious calorie counters.
In the discussion, the authors mention more extreme cases of this where some cases of under/over-feeding took months to return to balance.
And this is where my current thinking stands. If you're actually hungry, it's more likely because you've been in an energy deficit for the preceding days/weeks than because you just did an extra few miles on the exercise bike.
2) which is why I didn't care much for the recent study on breakfast skipping...
People were citing the above graph and saying skipping breakfast allows for a more negative energy balance.
1) this was one day. ONE DAY. Energy balance doesn't work like that; otherwise we'd be eating a few calories every minute to match those we're using.
2) breakfast skippers actually did start to compensate for skipping breakfast by eating more later in the day LOL
see the top & bottom dotted lines connecting 'breakfast exercise' with 'fasted exercise.' If there was no compensation, these lines would be exactly parallel. It wasn't statistically significant, but...
I still wouldn't cite this study to support or refute breakfast. Just saying it certainly doesn't refute it.
Also, I find it odd that some people will happily brag about 24 -36 hour fasts (and longer!), but the idea of a late lunch & skipping dinner *gasp* ANTI-SOCIAL!
Come on guys :-)
That's all for now!
For personalized health consulting services: [email protected].
Affiliate links: Still looking for a pair of hot blue blockers? TrueDark is offering 10% off HERE and Spectra479 is offering 15% off HERE. Use discount code LAGAKOS for a deal on CarbonShades. If you have no idea what I’m talking about, read this then this.