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U.S. and Canada: Happy trails!

 We did it! Over the last three months we've accomplished something rather special. When we began our deep dive into the music of United States and Canada we may have thought to ourselves, with a chuckle, “the music of America and Canada is really quite a treat, what with all the jazz and blues and hip hop and all, but are we really going to learn anything new?" The answer.......OF COURSE!

We started way back in the beginning, with Native American/First Nations music, learning about the diversity of Native regional forms, traveled to Northeastern Canada, the Caribbean and the mouth of the Mississippi to track the terrific roots of Cajun and Creole music, then journeyed to the border between the United States and Mexico, exploring the Conjunto and Tejano music that leaps across that line. We learned the international foundations of America's genius jazz, discovered that British poetry and African instruments blended to form Appalachian folk and simmered in the Delta heat with struggling storytellers who lived the blues. We sizzled with Puerto Rican salseros, delighted in disco, swayed to melodic “mele” in the Hawaiian breeze and broke every dance we tried as we reveled in hip hop. All the while we considered music from the United States and Canada to be a phenomenal fusion of forms – “new” music built upon thousands of years of human song.

I'm so honored that you chose to spend some time with me each week. I hope, throughout this season, you learned as much, and laughed as much, as I did. 

This week in class we sing:

"Sourwood Mountain” is a deep down Appalachian folk tune. “Chickens a crowin' on Sourwood Mountain. Hi-ho doodle-um a-day.” (More.)  

We sing "We Are Happy," a hello song from Uganda, to open every All Around This World class. This week we sing hello in Navajo: "Yá'át'ééh."

J'ai Passé,” a Cajun Classic, is a sad song about lost love. (More.)  

Mudhead Kachina” is a chant from the Hopi tribe of America's Southwest. (More.)  

Bailala” is a super-singable “plena” from Puerto Rico imploring us to dance – “I love to dance the plena, bailala!”(More.)  

Aloha 'Oe” is the classic Hawaiian song, written by the Queen herself. (More.)  


We spent this season learning about the global foundations of American and Canadian music. Let's end by learning a little about a form of music that jumped across the Atlantic in the other direction, simmered for a few years, then fueled an entire British Invasion.

"Skiffle" is a form of music that developed in the U.S. in the 1920s as a down-home blend of jazz, blues and folk, faded into obscurity, then re-emerged in the UK in the 1950s and changed the world.

While the term "skiffle" was a slang term used in the '20s to refer to a "rent party," which was a social gathering with a small charge that people held to raise money to pay for rent on their house, the origins of "skiffle" as a musical form are in dispute--did it arise from New Orleans Jazz? did it appear in the form of improvised jug bands that played early blues and jazz across the American South? Whatever the origins of the form, skiffle bands came to embody a unique form of roosty, do-it-yourself music-making. Rather than move toward more and more complicated arrangements performed by more and more virtuosic musicians like other forms of blues and jazz, skiffle remained consciously self-made: instruments in a 1920s skiffle band might include, in addition to the standard acoustic guitar, a jug, a tea-chest bass, a washboard, a cigar-box fiddle, a musical saw or even a kazoo. While the form may have been fun it never really caught on; the term "skiffle" all but disappeared by the '40s.

But not in England. In the 1950s a British traditional jazz guitarist named Lonnie Donegan became interested in the form and began to play skiffle in the intermissions of his jazz band performances, accompanying other band members who played a washboard and tea-chest bass. They played American folk songs and in 1956 even recorded a cover of Leadbelly's "Rock Island Line." The song was a big hit. [Watch Donegan skiffle himself silly on British TV.

Donegan and his skiffle band ended up having many more hits in the U.K. in the '50s, but ultimately his own music isn't his legacy. Donegan was important in the development of global culture because of the musicians he inspired to start their own skiffle bands--young blokes, some of who may have heard of. Like Van Morrison, Mick Jagger, Jimmy Page, David Gilmour. Oh, and this guy named John Lennon whose skiffle band, The Quarrymen, were a first iteration of his "other band,"  THE BEATLES, These musicians eventually ditched exchanged homemade instruments for international stardom. But it all started with skiffle. 

Watch a 13 year old Jimmy Page, eventually of Led Zeppelin fame, perform with his skiffle band | Watch Page about ten years later playing "I'm a Man," when he was a member of the Yardbirds, on the BBC show Shivaree (note the amazing Shivaree dancers). 



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