Xenomorphs as we know take their traits from the host, but originate from the form Plagiarus Praeportens.
We know now from Alien: The Cold Forge, Prometheus and from Alien: Covenant that the pathogen is a Bacteriophage. If we look to into its taxonomical tree we can see where the Xenomorph gets its traits from, it's an Extremophilic which means it survives in harsh environments and can withstand pretty extreme atmospheres. I believe part of this trait is carried on into the adult and ensures its ability for survival.
If we look to the EU in the Alien Omnibus Xenomorphs are said to be able to adapt to breathe whatever atmosphere it is in.
In science Tardigrades are tiny invertebrates called 'water bears' when tested in the vacuum of space have shown the ability to survive. They are known for their virtual indestructibility on Earth as well. They can survive intense pressures, huge doses of radiation, and years of being dried out.
I believe there have been many instances in the books and comics at least where Aliens have been shown hibernating, even the Ovomorphs are still viable after some time, Egg Sacs in Alien: Covenant were also in some sort of hibernation before being awakened from human interference.
There is no definite consensus as to the ability to survive extended periods, but I personally believe from what Alien: Isolation has shown us and Alien: Covenant that the Xenomorph is an adept predator which could survive in the most extreme circumstances to serve the plot.
Other places where this has been discussed: