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How Does Cooperation Evolve?
If evolution is all about "survival of the fittest", how does cooperation evolve? Living things form cooperative relationships all the time. Research done by applying mathematics to biology is helping us understand the evolution of cooperation. Cooperation has caused some of the major evolutionary steps in the history of life, including the step from single celled creatures to multi-cellular plants and animals.

Scientists use mathematical models to discover scenarios in which natural selection will favors cooperation. Not only is this helping us understand cooperation in the natural world, it has huge potential to help businesses and nations set up conditions that will better encourage cooperation between groups of people that would otherwise compete. 


Many species of fungus feed on lichen:

Kin selection combined with budding can give rise to cooperation:

Kin Selection:

Direct Reciprocation:

Indirect Reciprocation:

Network Reciprocation:

Five Rules for the Evolution of Cooperation:

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