📚The Role Of The Electron📚
📚Educational Purposes📚

The Chemistry.. Continued .. 

The Electrons orbiting around the Nucleus of the Atom.. form what is called .. ☁️The-Electron-Cloud☁️.. 

⁉️What is that⁉️.. 😳.. well .. to answer 📚

The electrons orbit the nucleus of the Atom.. in what is called electron orbital shells.. or.. electron-shells.. this is the .. SPACE .. from which they .. Travel Around .. the Nucleus .. &.. are predicted to be found.. 

Atoms .. known so far .. can have electrons within 7-electron-shells.. 

📚numbering the inner most shell closest to the nucleus.. shell #1.. &..  moving out from the nucleus.. begins the counting of the shells upward.. you know .. the next shell outward would become shell # 2.. 🤓😎📚... 

So to go more in depth.. the actual number of electrons around the Atom... is what is determining .. the number of shells .. within the electron cloud.. 😳⁉️.. what does that mean.. 

📚Well.. each electron shell contains one .. or .. more Orbitals .. 

📚The Orbital..  is the area of space .. that the electron is predicted .. to be found.. 

It is important to understand that each .. Electron Shell .. is the representation of a different energy level.. &.. with this.. 📚each electron particle.. is the representation of potential-energy.. so in general.. the electron shell .. &.. the energy-level can be used interchangeably.. 

So.. 😳.. ⁉️how much potential-energy does a electron have⁉️.. &.. how is it determined.. ⁉️😳..

Well to answer.. 📚.. the energy-level.. depends.. on the electron shell.. or ... the space .. from which the shell occupies .. around the Atom.. remember there can be 7- electron-shells..

📚let me explain 📚.. 

The attraction ... between the positively charged nucleus .. &.. the negatively charged electrons ... is at the greatest... when the electrons are closest to the nucleus.. 

📚As the distance ... between the electrons .. &.. the nucleus becomes greater.. this attraction... to the nucleus.. begins to fall with the increasing distance.. 

this is explaining why the electrons farthest from the nucleus have the greatest potential energy.. meaning.. it took a .. greater amount of energy .. to reach the greater distance from the Nucleus .. &.. ‼️📚I should mention here as well.. 

📚that the electron on the outer electron-shell ..which is called the .. valence-electron-shell.. is most likely to react with the other Atoms.. as the electron is held the .. LEAST TIGHTLY.. to the nucleus.. allowing for the influence of attraction by other Atoms.. &.. the electrons .. are likely to react.. 

📚Each electron shell... can hold.. a specific number of electrons.. The first shell.. that is immediately surrounding the nucleus.. holds only 2-electrons..&.. fills up before any will even begin to appear within shell #2.... however.. the 2nd electron shell ..can hold 8-electrons.. the 3rd shell.. has room for 18-electrons.. &.. the following shells can hold a increasing & increasing number .. 

⁉️So which electrons do the chemical-bonding⁉️.. 

📚to answer 📚.. the electrons that are important for bonding.. are the ones on the outer most shell.. the valence electron shell.. 

📚the inner electrons within the inner shells.. do not participate with the bonding.. as they are more tightly held to the nucleus.. 

📚when the outer most energy-level contains 8-electrons.. it is filled to capacity.. the Atom is un reactive.. or chemically inert.. but on the other hand.. the Atoms with less the 8 electrons.. on the outer most shell .. the electrons here tend to be gained .. lost.. or.. shared with other Atoms.. as they are trying to achieve stability .. 

📚The Atoms .. that have 20 or more electrons.. meaning.. that the shells beyond shell #2.. contain more than 8-electrons.. the number of electrons that can participate in bonding.. is still limited to the 8.. hence THE Octet Rule.. or .. the rule of eights.. 

📚The term valence electron shell.. refers to Atoms outmost energy-level.. or.. that portion of it containing the electrons that are chemically reactive.. 


Anatomy & Physiology Textbook 6Th Edition